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Study Session 7 Introduction to the Principles of Food Hygiene and Safety
Contents:
  1. Risk Factors Influencing Microbial Contamination in Food Service Centers
  2. Food Safety Hazards
  3. Navigation menu
  4. Microbial Food Safety | SpringerLink
  5. Table of contents

Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Extends the breadth and coverage of the first volume in the series Includes updates on specific pathogens and safety for specific foods Reviews both detection and management of foodborne pathogens. Powered by. You are connected as. Connect with:. Use your name:. Thank you for posting a review! We value your input. Share your review so everyone else can enjoy it too.

Risk Factors Influencing Microbial Contamination in Food Service Centers

Your review was sent successfully and is now waiting for our team to publish it. Reviews 0. Updating Results. If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. Some authors state that washing hands before and after the change of gloves is highly desirable to reduce this microbial contamination [ 81 ]. Even the process of changing gloves is fraught with hazards, because many glove materials cause excess moisture build-up, causing difficulty in disinfecting contamination from the nail region to spread all over the hand.

However, gloves should be changed regularly because the risk of transmission of foodborne pathogens could be higher from dirty, unchanged gloves than from bare hands. The pros and cons of using gloves are extensively explained [ 97 ]. However, it should be highlighted that a proper glove change must be done because their efficiency as physical barrier for microorganisms is limited over working time. Besides this, physical properties of gloves tensile strength, flexibility, resistance to puncture, and tears , material used natural rubber gloves, vinyl, nitrile, polyurethane , and glove features single use vs.

Gloves can be made of different types of material, according to their use and physical properties. Polyethylene copolymer gloves could be the least expensive of all glove types. Density materials are quite variable, and they usually have a loose fit. They are built for using in short-time periods, and some glove types contain antibacterial compounds. However, their use is quite limited in comparison to other gloves.


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Vinyl gloves PVC can be used as an alternative to latex gloves being more resistant to heat damage. However, they are susceptible to being torn with snag on nail edges. They also have a limited use in food industries because of their short shelf life.

Table of Contents

Nitrile gloves were also developed to replace latex gloves. They are less elastic but have a longer shelf life. They are more resistant to chemicals but sensitive to alcohol degradation.

Food Safety Hazards

Although they are sensible to be torn, their garish color helps them to be distinguished within a food lot. Natural rubber latex gloves are most commonly used because they are most cost-efficient and comfortable.


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They provide good tactile sensitivity and good dexterity. However, latex and chemical compounds added to the gloves can produce allergies and migration of particles to food, especially in the presence of bleach. In summary, according to the intended use, convenience, and cost-effectiveness, glove material should be carefully chosen. However, it has been demonstrated that regardless of the gloves used, handling practices and gloves changing are critical steps that influence microbial transfer to foods.

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As mentioned above, the cross-contamination is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide. Cross-contamination phenomena arise as a consequence of the application of inadequate hygiene practices, contact with contaminated equipment and utensils, by direct hand contact with foods prepared by the improper storage of food, bad processing food, by direct food contact with air or contaminated environments, and so on [ 94 ]. Recontamination routes and sources e. These information sources should also be incorporated in Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessments QMRAs to perform mitigation strategies and reduce foodborne disease [ ].

Particularly, RTE foods are highly susceptible to be contaminated during handling. Some studies refer to the direct contact of the RTE food e. It is also emphasized its importance as a source of transmission of enteric pathogens, L. Temperature is the most important factor that governs microbial growth in food. Thus, maintaining the cold chain and a correct heat treatment for hot foods are essential measures to maintain food safety, where food handlers play a key role throughout the production chain.

Previous studies indicate that in school canteens and other related catering establishments exposure to abuse refrigerated temperature for extended periods of time could lead to an increase of pathogens at hazardous levels for human health from preparation to the distribution thereof [ ].

Microbial Food Safety | SpringerLink

Other possible deficiencies are related to temperature control storage of raw and processed ready for consumption, lack of knowledge of food handlers about cooking and refrigeration temperatures suitable to prevent the growth and survival of microorganisms, inadequate cooling and warming food and preparing several hours before consumption [ ], or joint cooling of raw and cooked foods [ ]. Training of food handlers has been considered an important measure as a part of the HACCP systems, given that it helps to prevent most foodborne diseases.

Although knowledge alone is not enough to change practices, food handlers with adequate knowledge can change their practices easier if they are closely supervised and supported by their onsite managers. In addition, guidance and supervision by their managers during work improve attitudes and practices [ ]. Nevertheless, further studies detailing more sophisticated methods to obtain a greater quantity and reliability of information to improve the training of food handlers are needed.

Table of contents

Additionally, novel strategies leading to more effective training methods have been performed. For example, some studies proposed to strengthen the training of less experienced food handlers and validate the knowledge of those more experienced in a period not exceeding 10 years [ ]. In this sense, a better knowledge on food safety by food handlers ensures better performance and motivation [ ]. In this sense, it is highly important to food handlers in the HACCP systems companies to correct their attitudes and behavior at work.

Also, a periodic training is found as an effective way to raise awareness of food handlers [ 9 ].

Training of food handlers in food hygiene is a mandatory requirement for the food industry. The project is based on the development of a software tool for basic training of food handlers of the contract-catering sector across Europe. This tool is available online free of charge www. The burden reduction of foodborne diseases is a major goal of societies. Woteki and Kineman [ ] described different approaches to reducing foodborne illness and grouped them into four categories: i population surveillance and better outbreak detection, ii prevention-based regulatory approaches, iii information and education, and iv risk-based system.

Introduction to food microbiology

Early identification of foodborne outbreaks and the implicated organism should be directed to controlling the outbreak, stopping exposure, and perhaps more importantly, preventing future outbreaks [ ]. Also, a rapid and coordinated response is needed among state officials and federal agencies. Some authors [ , ] pointed out that surveillance based on molecular analysis of foodborne pathogens involved in outbreaks and sporadic cases together with the creation of a platform to share this information would allow for anticipation of potential future episodes.

In this sense, Fisher et al. In the United States, similar platforms are available [ ], i. Regulatory agencies allow food business operators to set up performance standards in the industry through the well-known HAZARD plan. The HAZARD plan should be designed upon the analysis of the likely hazards in the food and the strategies put in place to eliminate them or to reduce them to acceptable levels [ ].


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This system has shown to have a very positive and crucial impact on food safety, thus on public health, as has been recognized by key organizations like the World Health Organization [ ]. Special attention deserves establishments, which deliver meals to a large number of people, and even more, in those centers where there is an important proportion of consumers with a weak or impaired immune system like hospitals or nurseries.

Unfortunately, in the past years it has been reported some cases where the HACCP plan was not fully implemented. This is the case of the study by Kokkinakis et al. Shih and Wang [ ], in their study on factors influencing HACCP implementation in 23 public hospitals in Taiwan, revealed that the most important concern perceived by managers was related to economic issues, i. Shih and Wang [ ] also pointed out that kitchen design and flow charts of food production are the first two issues to consider before the HACCP implementation.

In the food industry, emerging and existing technologies should be assessed in terms of food safety [ ].